A system to monitor, report and verify the social and environmental impacts of REDD+ is integral to Indonesia’s REDD+ Programme, in line with both the UNFCCC Cancun Decisions and Indonesia’s own vision of REDD+ as Beyond Carbon. This study provides a comprehensive review of over 40 social and environmental safeguards related to REDD+ implementation in Indonesia, comparing each of them to the UNFCCC Cancun Safeguards (representing an authoritative international baseline for REDD+ social and environmental safeguards). The review covers standards related to multilateral agreements and programmatic standards; carbon market, NGO and private sector initiatives; bilateral programs; national instruments; and synergies with related international treaties. The study summarizes gaps and lessons learned from available safeguards systems, focusing on key themes such as Free Prior and Informed Consent, governance and coordination, accountability and stakeholder participation. Recommendations are provided to guide the further development of REDD+ in Indonesia, including the improvement of coherence and harmonization, improving information sharing, ensuring accountability and ensuring sustainability in safeguards implementation, including by undertaking a thorough cost analysis.
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