Policy Brief 05 – Recognising and Maintaining the Carbon Stock Value of Mangrove Ecosystems

Indonesia is home to more than 20% of the world’s mangroves, which are multi-functional ecosystems that nurture fishery and forest resources, mitigate coastal disasters and climate change, provide ecosystem services and eco-tourism opportunities, act as carbon sinks and encourage biodiversity. Mangroves are increasingly deforested to make way for shrimp ponds, plantations and infrastructure and their deforestation contributes 10-31% of total national land use emissions. There is much overlap between governmental institutions dealing with mangrove management, including the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries as well as provincial and district governments. The Government of Indonesia has issued a comprehensive strategy on the management of mangroves, but the challenge lies in its operationalization with different stakeholders and the cohesion of legal frameworks on mangrove conservation. To meet emissions reductions targets, the roles and responsibilities of institutions have to be clarified and an inclusive approach should be mobilized to avoid fragmentation of laws and regulations. Provincial Working Groups on Mangroves have a mandate to coordinate regulations and management work, however, the mandate has not yet been fully implemented due to insufficient budget and resources. Promoting private sector investment and engagement is thus, also an area that should be explored in the management of mangrove ecosystems, as private sector actors can provide financial capital needed to execute sustainable forest management strategies. The capital provided by the private sector is typically self-procured without external inputs, and is more efficient in addressing the needs of mangrove conservation.